• Product Force Constant [N/m]

  • Resonant Frequency [kHz]

  • Cantilever

  • Coating

  • Tip


The contact resonance technology was first developed by the Yamanaka and Arnold groups in the 1990s. The principle is that the AFM cantilever will resonate when it comes into contact with the sample. The cantilever and sample contact can be considered as a spring coupled in series to a second spring and damper in parallel. Here, the first spring represents the elastic response of the cantilever, and the second spring and damper represent the viscoelastic response of the sample. Therefore, as the sample contact stiffness changes, the frequency of the contact resonance also changes (higher stiffness = higher frequency). The change in the viscous response of the sample is reflected in the quality factor (Q) of the contact resonance (more viscous = lower Q). These stiffness and dissipation measurements can then be converted into elastic modulus and loss modulus using standard contact mechanics models.

Our contact resonance products are suitable for most repeatable nanomechanics on hard samples. All of these probes have a wear-resistant conductive diamond coating for the highest repeatability and resolution. In the contact resonance imaging with the probe, these probes performed multiple imaging without measurable wear or changes in nanomechanical values. These probes also use advanced technology to achieve the most consistent tip and cantilever shape, thereby further improving measurement consistency. They all use 225um long rectangular cantilevers with three spring constants to handle a certain range of sample moduli.